Research Models

Selected Results

2 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Cognition/ Behavior Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (2)
APPSwDI/NOS2 bigenic mice, APPSDI/NOS2KO, CVN B6.Cg-Nos2tm1Lau Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/Mmjax C57BL/6J; C57BL/6N APP, NOS2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP E693Q (Dutch), APP D694N (Iowa) APPSwDI x NOS2 knockout animals. APPSwDI transgene expresses APP (isoform 770) with Swedish, Dutch, and Iowa mutations under the control of the mouse Thy1 promoter. NOS2 was disrupted by homologous recombination. The calmodulin binding domain of NOS2 was replaced by the neomycin resistance gene and the reading frame disrupted. APP: Transgenic; NOS2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease Plaques especially in the thalamus and subiculum. Aggregated, hyperphosphorylated tau tangles. Neuronal loss especially of NPY neurons in the hippocampus and subiculum. More severe pathology than Tg-SwDI alone. Severe learning and memory deficits. Impaired spatial memory compared to Tg-SwDI as measured by the radial arm maze and the Barnes maze at 52-56 weeks. Decreased neuropeptide Y staining throughout the hippocampus, particularly in the CA3 region and subiculum. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034849; Cryopreserved. Charles River: CVN mouse Colton et al., 2008, Wilcock et al., 2008 Yes
APP-Swedish,Dutch,Iowa, APPSwDI C57BL/6-Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/Mmjax C57BL/6 APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP E693Q (Dutch), APP D694N (Iowa) Transgenic mice with 2.1 kb of the human APP gene (isoform 770) with the Swedish (K670N/M671L), Dutch (E693Q) and Iowa (D694N) mutations under the control of the mouse Thy1 promoter. APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis of the Dutch type Hemizygotes progressively accumulate insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, especially within brain microvessels starting at 3 months. Fibrillar Aβ in micovessels around 6 months. Diffuse plaque-like deposits around 3 months in the subiculum, hippocampus and cortex. Aβ deposits throughout the forebrain by 12 months. Impaired learning and memory in the Barnes maze task at 3, 9, and 12 months. Beginning at 3 months transgenic mice took longer to find the escape hole. No difference in mobility, strength or coordination. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034843; Live Davis et al., 2004 Yes

2 Visualizations

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Changes in LTP/LTD

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 1mo, 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

APPSwDI/NOS2-/-

Observed
  1. Plaques at 49

    Aβ deposits by 52 weeks. Particularly dense Aβ immunoreactivity in the subiculum and thalamus, including in the cerebral microvessels (Wilcock et al., 2008).

  2. Tangles at 49

    Extensive tau pathology by 52 weeks, including intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau. Increased phosphorylated tau in bigenic mice compared to APPSwDI mice (Wilcock et al., 2008).

  3. Neuronal Loss at 52

    Significant neuron loss by 52 weeks in the hippocampus and subiculum, especially of neuropeptide Y neurons. Numerous Fluoro-Jade C+ neurons: 30% loss in the hippocampus, 35% loss in the subiculum (Wilcock et al., 2008).

  4. Cognitive Impairment at 53

    Impairments in spatial memory by 52-56 weeks as measured by the radial arm maze and the Barnes maze. Bigenic mice more impaired than APPSwDI (Wilcock et al., 2008).

Absent
Unknown
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP, NOS2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP E693Q (Dutch), APP D694N (Iowa) APP: Transgenic; NOS2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease

Plaques especially in the thalamus and subiculum. Aggregated, hyperphosphorylated tau tangles. Neuronal loss especially of NPY neurons in the hippocampus and subiculum. More severe pathology than Tg-SwDI alone.

Severe learning and memory deficits. Impaired spatial memory compared to Tg-SwDI as measured by the radial arm maze and the Barnes maze at 52-56 weeks.

Tg-SwDI (APP-Swedish,Dutch,Iowa)

Observed
  1. Plaques at 13

    Hemizygotes progressively accumulate insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, especially within brain microvessels starting at 3 months. Amyloid-β deposits in the subiculum, hippocampus, and cortex at ~3 months. By ~6 months deposits become more numerous and appear in the olfactory bulb and thalamic region as well, with deposits throughout most of the forebrain by 12 months (Davis et al., 2004).

  2. Gliosis at 26

    Pronounced increase in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated microglia with age (6-24 months) especially in the thalamus and subiculum and to a lesser extent in the cortex (Miao et al., 2005).

  3. Cognitive Impairment at 13

    Impaired learning and memory in the Barnes maze task at 3, 9, and 12 months; beginning at 3 months took longer to find the escape hole. No difference in mobility, strength or coordination (Xu et al., 2007).

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Absent.

Unknown
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP E693Q (Dutch), APP D694N (Iowa) APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis of the Dutch type

Hemizygotes progressively accumulate insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, especially within brain microvessels starting at 3 months. Fibrillar Aβ in micovessels around 6 months. Diffuse plaque-like deposits around 3 months in the subiculum, hippocampus and cortex. Aβ deposits throughout the forebrain by 12 months.

Impaired learning and memory in the Barnes maze task at 3, 9, and 12 months. Beginning at 3 months transgenic mice took longer to find the escape hole. No difference in mobility, strength or coordination.