Research Models

Selected Results

10 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Cognition/ Behavior Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (10)
5XFAD APP/PS1, Tg6799, Tg-5xFAD B6SJL-Tg(APPSwFlLon,PSEN1*M146L*L286V)6799Vas/Mmjax (C57BL/6 x SJL)F1 APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716V (Florida), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M146L (A>C), PSEN1 L286V Two transgenes: mutant human APP with the APP Swedish, Florida and London mutations and containing the 5' untranslated region driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter and 2) mutant human PSEN1 including the M146L and L286V mutations driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid pathology starting at 2 months, including amyloid plaques. Accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ before amyloid deposition. Gliosis and synapse degeneration. Neuron loss in cortical layer 5 and subiculum. No neurofibrillary tangles. Age-dependent memory deficits including spatial memory, stress-related memory, and memory stablization. Motor phenotype and reduced anxiety. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034840; Live Oakley et al., 2006 Yes
APP(SL)PS1KI, APPxPS1-Ki, APPSL/PS1KI, APP(SL)/PS1(KI) The PS1KI line was established in 129SV and backcrossed >7 times to C57BL/6 background. The PS1KI were bred with APPSL mice on a C57BL background (two rounds) to obtain a homozygote PS1KI and heterozygote APP. APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M233T, PSEN1 L235P This animal is a cross between a PSEN1 knock-in line and an APP over-expressing line. The PS1 knock-in line was generated by introducing two point mutations in the wild-type mouse PSEN1, corresponding to the mutations M233T and L235P. APP751SL overexpresses human APP751 carrying the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670N/M671L) mutations under the control of the Thy1 promoter. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease Acceleration of extracellular Aβ deposition compared to the single transgenics. Age-dependent neuronal loss in the hippocampus with extensive neuronal loss in the CA1/2 at 10 months with detection as early as 6 months in female mice. Intraneuronal Aβ and thioflavine-S-positive deposits before neuronal loss. Astrogliosis in proximity of Aβ-positive neurons. Age-dependent impairments in working memory as measured by the Y maze and T-maze continuous alternation task. No deficit at 2 months, but deficits at 6 and 12 months compared to PS1KI littermates. Viable and fertile. 6 month-old animals develop decreases in body weight, and a spinal deformity (kyphosis) is common. Impaired neurogenesis. Available through Thomas Bayer or Benoit Delatour. Casas et al., 2004 Yes
happ-SL x hTau, APP751-SL x TAU441 V337M R406W C57BL/6 x DBA MAPT, APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London), MAPT V337M (Seattle Family A), MAPT R406W Cross of two models from QPS: (1) APP751SL, which overexpresses mutant human APP (isoform 751) with the Swedish (K670N/M671L) and London (V717I) mutations under the control of the brain-specific Thy1 promoter, and (2) THMT, which overexpresses human MAPT (441) with the V337M and R406W mutations under the control of Thy1. MAPT: Transgenic; APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Plaques start at 3-6 months. Some acceleration of amyloid deposition in the amygdala as compared to the hAPPSL single transgenic; detected in bigenic animals by 3 months vs 6 months. Cognitive impairment at 3 months demonstrated by the Morris Water Maze. Eyes appear smaller compared to wild-type mice, but pupillary reflex, eye blink reflex, and visual test performance are normal. QPS-Austria Yes
APP KI, line ADF Strain of origin: (129X1/SvJ x 129S1/Sv)F1-Kitl<+>; C57BL/6 and maintained on a mixed background APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London), APP E693Q (Dutch) Knock-in of wild-type mouse APP exon 16 (truncated after residue KM), FLAG tag (2 repeats), a stop codon, a poly A signal region from the human growth hormone gene and an additional copy of exon 16 carrying the Swedish mutation and a modified exon 17 with the London and Dutch mutations. APP: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease Unknown. Unknown. The Jackson Lab: Stock# 008390; Cryopreserved No
C57Bl/6xDBA APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London) These mice are the results of cross-breeding APPSL mice (human APP751 with Swedish (K670M/N671L) and London (V717I) mutation under control of the Thy-1 promoter) and hQC mice (human glutaminyl cyclase under control of the Thy-1 promoter). APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Increased pGlu Aβ in cortex and hippocampus starting at 7.5 months. Increased ThioflavinS and 6E10 positive plaques in cortex and hippocampus starting at 5.5 months. Increased microgliosis and astrocytosis in cortex and hippocampus starting at 7.5 months. Spatial memory deficits starting at 4 months (Morris water maze). At 9 months deficits in contextual fear conditioning. At 12 months animals are less anxious (elevated plus maze). QPS-Austria; livestock. Contact: office-austria@qps.com No
APP YAC Swe/Lon (line J1.96), B6-J1-96 B6.129S4-Tg(APPSwLon)96Btla/Mmjax 129S4/SvJae-derived J1 ES cells; backcrossed to C57BL/6 APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London) A 650 kb YAC transgene containing the entire human APP gene carrying the Swedish and London mutations with ~ 250 kb of flanking sequence; founder animals (line J1.96) have a single copy of the transgene. APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease No amyloid plaques observed at 2 years. Unknown. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034837; Cryopreserved Lamb et al., 1997 No
Knock-in of APP(V642I) Origin:C57BL/6 x CBA; chimeric mice breed to CD-1 mice APP APP V717I (London) Targeted knock-in of the V642I mutation into exon 17 of the mouse APP gene using homologous recombination and the Cre-loxP system. APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Increased Aβ42(43) relative to Aβ40 at 29 months, but without neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, massive neuronal loss, or brain atrophy. At 27-29 months mice displayed long-term memory deterioration. Acquisition of spatial memory is slightly affected, but no deterioration in short-term working memory. No difference in open field test or elevated plus maze suggesting no difference in overall behavioral patterns or activity levels. Unknown. Kawasumi et al., 2004 Yes
APPlon, APP-london, APPLd, APP-ld, APP(V717I), APP[V717I], APP.V717I, APP(London) (line 2), APP/LD/2 Thy1-hAPP.V717I (C57BL/6.FVB/N) Originally generated on FVB/N background; available at reMYND as C57BL/6xFVB/N APP APP V717I (London) Transgene containing human APP (isoform 695) with the London mutation driven by the Thy1 promoter. APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Plaques start in the subiculum, spreading to the frontal cortex as dense and diffuse aggregates. Prominent amyloid deposits in brain vessels after 15 months. Microbleeds. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio decreases from 15 months. Dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology. From the age of 6 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris water maze. Impaired associative learning. Increased agitation/anxiety from 8 weeks. Reduced ambulation, especially with age. Hyperactivity and aggression. Increased mortality (72% by day 180). Increased incidence of seizures. Available through the KU Leuven Research and Development Office and reMYND. Moechars et al., 1999 Yes
APPxPS1, APP(V717I)x PS1(A246E), APP[V717I]x PS1[A246E], APP.V717I x PS1.A246E Thy1-hAPP.V717I ( C57BL/6)x Thy1-hPS1.A246E (FVB/N) Originally generated on FVB/N background; available at reMYND as C57BL/6xFVB/N APP, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), PSEN1 A246E The transgene overexpresses the mutant human amyloid protein precursor APP (isoform 695), which bears the London (V717I) mutation, and human presenilin-1 with the A246E mutation, both under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy1 promoter. APP: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Soluble, oligomeric Aβ at 2 months and increases with age. Amyloid plaques at 6-9 months, earlier than APP(V717I) single transgenics. Plaques start in the subiculum and spread to the frontal cortex. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CAA pathology at 8 months; microbleeds at 12-15 months. Dystropic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology. From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris Water Maze. Impaired associative learning, hyperactivity, anxiety, and aggression. Available through reMYND. Dewachter et al., 2000 Yes
hAPPSL, hAPP-SL, AβPP751, TASD41, mThy1-hAβPP751 Swe Lon (line 41), APP751SL, hAPPlon/swe line 41 , APP41 mThy1-hAβPP751 Swe Lon C57BL/6 x DBA APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London) The transgene over-expresses the mutant human amyloid protein precursor (751 isoform), which bears both the Swedish (K670N/M671L) and the London (V717I) mutations, under the control of the murine Thy1 promoter. APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Age-dependent increases in Aβ40 and Aβ42, with Aβ42 > Aβ40. Plaques at an early age, starting at 3-6 months in the frontal cortex. At 5-7 months, size and number of plaques increased in the frontal cortex, and dense amyloid deposits appear in hippocampous, thalamus, and olfactory region. Age-associated impairment in spatial memory and learning in the water maze task and habituation in the hole-board task, with significant deficits at 6 months of age. Some gender-specific differences in open field exploration. Available through Eliezer Masliah. A similar strain, APPSL, is available through QPS-Austria on a congenic C57BL/6 background. Rockenstein et al., 2001 Yes

7 Visualizations

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 1mo, 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

5xFAD

Observed
  1. Plaques at 7

    Amyloid deposition begins at 1.5 months and reaches high levels especially in subiculum and deep cortical layers. Aβ42 also accumulates intraneuronally in an aggregated form within the soma and neurites starting at 1.5 months (Oakley et al., 2006).

  2. Neuronal Loss at 39

    Neuron loss in cortical layer 5 and subiculum.

  3. Gliosis at 9

    Gliosis begins at 2 months (Oakley et al., 2006).

  4. Synaptic Loss at 39

    Synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and PSD-95 decrease with age and are significantly reduced by 9 and 12 months.

  5. Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    LTP is normal in young animals, but becomes impaired around 6 months (Kimura et al., 2009); specifically, in hippocampal slices from < 4-month-old mice, I/O curves of fEPSPs were not different from those of wild-type controls, but the I/O responses at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses at 6 months were impaired.

  6. Cognitive Impairment at 17

    Impaired spatial memory in Y-maze test at 4-5 months. Impaired stress-related memory, specifically significantly lower levels of contextual freezing at 6 months. Impaired remote memory stabilization at < 4 months.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Absent.

Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716V (Florida), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M146L (A>C), PSEN1 L286V APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid pathology starting at 2 months, including amyloid plaques. Accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ before amyloid deposition. Gliosis and synapse degeneration. Neuron loss in cortical layer 5 and subiculum. No neurofibrillary tangles.

Age-dependent memory deficits including spatial memory, stress-related memory, and memory stablization. Motor phenotype and reduced anxiety.

APP751SL/PS1 KI

Observed
  1. Plaques at 11

    Aβ deposition at 2.5 months compared to 6 months in APPSL mice. At 6 months, numerous compact Aβ deposits in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus, whereas in age-matched APPSL mice only very few deposits restricted mainly to the subiculum and deeper cortical layers. At 10 months, deposits increased in distribution, density, and size in both models (Casas et al., 2004).

  2. Neuronal Loss at 23

    Some cell loss detectable as early as 6 months in female mice. At 10 months extensive neuronal loss (>50%) is present in the CA1/2 hippocampal pyramidal cell layer. SNeuronal loss also occurs in the frontal cortex and cholinergic system (Casas et al., 2004; Christensen et al., 2008; Christensen et al., 2010).

  3. Gliosis at 11

    Astrogliosis occurs in parallel with Aβ deposition, starting around 2.5 months, and in proximity to Aβ-positive neurons (Wirths et al., 2010).

  4. Synaptic Loss at 24

    At 6 months, levels of pre- and post-synaptic markers are reduced (Breyhan et al., 2009).

  5. Changes in LTP/LTD at 28

    At 6 months there is a large reduction of long-term potentiation and disrupted paired pulse facilitation. No deficit at 4 months (Breyhan et al., 2009).

  6. Cognitive Impairment at 27

    Age-dependent impairments in working memory as measured by the Y maze and T-maze continuous alternation task. No deficit at 2 months, but deficits at 6 and 12 months compared to PS1KI littermates (Wirths et al., 2008).

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Absent.

Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M233T, PSEN1 L235P APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease

Acceleration of extracellular Aβ deposition compared to the single transgenics. Age-dependent neuronal loss in the hippocampus with extensive neuronal loss in the CA1/2 at 10 months with detection as early as 6 months in female mice. Intraneuronal Aβ and thioflavine-S-positive deposits before neuronal loss. Astrogliosis in proximity of Aβ-positive neurons.

Age-dependent impairments in working memory as measured by the Y maze and T-maze continuous alternation task. No deficit at 2 months, but deficits at 6 and 12 months compared to PS1KI littermates.

APP751-SL x THMT

Observed
  1. Plaques at 13

    Plaques start at 3 months in the frontal cortex and become more widespread with age.

  2. Gliosis at 26

    Microglial activation. Numerous glial cells around amyloid plaques at 6 months.

  3. Cognitive Impairment at 13

    Cognitive impairment at 3 months demonstrated by Morris Water Maze.

Absent
Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
MAPT, APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London), MAPT V337M (Seattle Family A), MAPT R406W MAPT: Transgenic; APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Plaques start at 3-6 months. Some acceleration of amyloid deposition in the amygdala as compared to the hAPPSL single transgenic; detected in bigenic animals by 3 months vs 6 months.

Cognitive impairment at 3 months demonstrated by the Morris Water Maze.

APP(V642I)KI

Observed
  1. Cognitive Impairment at 117
    Impairments at the water finding task at age 27-29 months, a test of long-term memory. No differences in the open field test of the elevated plus maze indicating no difference in general behavioral patterns, activity level, or emotional state.
Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

  • Tangles at

    Absent.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP APP V717I (London) APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Increased Aβ42(43) relative to Aβ40 at 29 months, but without neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, massive neuronal loss, or brain atrophy.

At 27-29 months mice displayed long-term memory deterioration. Acquisition of spatial memory is slightly affected, but no deterioration in short-term working memory. No difference in open field test or elevated plus maze suggesting no difference in overall behavioral patterns or activity levels.

APP(V717I)

Observed
  1. Plaques at 43

    Plaques start in the cortex and subiculum at ~10 months. Diffuse amyloid deposits and compact neuritic plaques at 13-18 months especially in the hippocampus and cortex, with occasional deposits in the thalamus and fimbria, external capsule, pontine nuclei, and white matter (Moechars et al., 1999). Prominent amyloid deposits in brain vessels after 15 months (Van Dorpe et al, 2000).

  2. Gliosis at 43

    GFAP, microglial activation, and other markers of brain inflammation are elevated by 10 months.

  3. Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Significant deficit in LTP in CA1 region of the hippocampus at 6 months.

  4. Cognitive Impairment at 26

    From the age of 6 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris water maze and other tests. Also deficits in associative learning.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

Unknown
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP APP V717I (London) APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Plaques start in the subiculum, spreading to the frontal cortex as dense and diffuse aggregates. Prominent amyloid deposits in brain vessels after 15 months. Microbleeds. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio decreases from 15 months. Dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology.

From the age of 6 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris water maze. Impaired associative learning. Increased agitation/anxiety from 8 weeks. Reduced ambulation, especially with age. Hyperactivity and aggression.

APP(V717I) x PS1(A246E)

Observed
  1. Plaques at 17

    Plaques start in cortex, hippocampus and subiculum at 4-6 months.

  2. Gliosis at 20

    Elevated GFAP, microglial activation, and other markers of brain inflammation increase as of 4.5 months.

  3. Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Significant deficit in LTP in CA1 region of the hippocampus at 6 months.

  4. Cognitive Impairment at 22

    From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris water maze and other tests. Also deficits in associative learning.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated murine tau, but no tangle pathology.

Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), PSEN1 A246E APP: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Soluble, oligomeric Aβ at 2 months and increases with age. Amyloid plaques at 6-9 months, earlier than APP(V717I) single transgenics. Plaques start in the subiculum and spread to the frontal cortex. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CAA pathology at 8 months; microbleeds at 12-15 months. Dystropic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology.

From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris Water Maze. Impaired associative learning, hyperactivity, anxiety, and aggression.

mThy1-hAPP751 (Line 41)

Observed
  1. Plaques at 13

    Plaques start at 3-6 months in the frontal cortex and become widespread with age, affecting the piriform and olfactory cortices, hippocampus, and thalamus (Rockenstein et al., 2001; Havas et al., 2011).

  2. Gliosis at 27

    Inflammation related to activated microglia (increased CD11) and reactive astrocytes (increased GFAP) is significant by 6 months and increases with age.

  3. Synaptic Loss at 52

    Dystrophic neurites and synaptic loss starting at 12 months.

  4. Cognitive Impairment at 26

    Cognitive impairment observed by 6 months by Morris Water Maze (Rockenstein et al., 2005).

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Absent.

Unknown
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathological
Phenotype
Neurological/Behavioral
Phenotype
APP APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP V717I (London) APP: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Age-dependent increases in Aβ40 and Aβ42, with Aβ42 > Aβ40. Plaques at an early age, starting at 3-6 months in the frontal cortex. At 5-7 months, size and number of plaques increased in the frontal cortex, and dense amyloid deposits appear in hippocampous, thalamus, and olfactory region.

Age-associated impairment in spatial memory and learning in the water maze task and habituation in the hole-board task, with significant deficits at 6 months of age. Some gender-specific differences in open field exploration.