Gymrek M, McGuire AL, Golan D, Halperin E, Erlich Y.
Identifying personal genomes by surname inference.
Science. 2013 Jan 18;339(6117):321-4.
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This paper shows the astonishing (and sometimes frightening) power of combining today's genetic research with public Internet databases. Unfortunately, there is not a lot that can be done in terms of "additional privacy safeguards" other than not releasing chromosome Y data to begin with—the information is out there and continues to grow. This situation, clearly, may lead to people being more reluctant to participate in research, which could become a problem, as the authors acknowledge. It may be very difficult to resolve this situation to everyone's satisfaction.