. Amyloid beta oligomers (A beta(1-42) globulomer) suppress spontaneous synaptic activity by inhibition of P/Q-type calcium currents. J Neurosci. 2008 Jan 23;28(4):788-97. PubMed.

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  1. Aβ1-42 globulomers (1) are synthetic soluble Aβ42 oligomers, which are interesting entities because they are relatively homogeneous. The major species runs at 48kDa by SDS-PAGE. There are minor species at 38kDa and 20kDa. A monoclonal antibody with relative specificity for globulomers, 8F5, stains in a halo-like pattern around Tg2576 plaques, and tends to stain the periphery of AD plaques. This is different from the staining pattern of the A11 antibody developed in the Glabe lab, which does not stain thioflavin S-positive plaques (2). In addition, Aβ1-42 globulomers bind to cultured neurons in a punctuate manner, similar in appearance to the pattern observed with ADDLs (Aβ-derived diffusible ligands, a different synthetic Aβ oligomer preparation), which have been shown to colocalize with dendritic spine proteins (3). However, Aβ globulomers differ from Aβ*56, an endogenous high-n Aβ oligomeric assembly of 56 kDa (4). For instance, differences reside in the electrophoretic and chromatographic profile using SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, and in their relative levels in Tg2576 mice at 2, 10, and 12 months of age. The levels of Aβ1-42 globulomers are low and approximately the same at 2 and 10 months, then rise ~fourfold at 12 months (1). These findings appear to mirror Aβ deposition occurring in Tg2576 mice (5,6). In contrast, the levels of Aβ*56 are undetectable at 2 months, and are the same at 10 and 12 months (4), except for a ~2-week interval around 12 months when Aβ*56 levels decrease as the rate of amyloid deposition increases in the brain of Tg2576 mice (6). Very importantly, the levels of Aβ*56 negatively correlate with spatial memory function in Tg2576 mice. Since the measured levels of Aβ1-42 globulomers do not correspond with poorer cognitive performance in Tg2576 mice, their relevance to memory loss is unclear, at least as can be assessed in this transgenic model of AD. Instead, the staining pattern of Aβ1-42 globulomers around plaques is reminiscent of the toxic halo that has been described in the Hyman lab (7-10).

    In this latest report, the authors demonstrate that Aβ1-42 globulomers suppress spontaneous synaptic activity in hippocampal primary neurons. They further refined their studies using pharmacological approaches and showed that in-vitro application of Aβ1-42 globulomers altered calcium influx through presynaptic P/Q-type calcium channels (Cav2.1). The globulomer-induced inhibition of calcium influx was rescued by roscovitine, recently proposed to positively regulate P/Q-type Ca2+ channels by acting on their extracellular domain, independently of its ability to inhibit the neuron-specific cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk5. These electrophysiological findings concerning globulomers could potentially explain the asynchrony of electrical activity that researchers in the Hyman lab described around plaques (8-10). Unlike ADDLs and secreted Aβ oligomers from APP-overexpressing cells (3,11,12), the punctuate staining pattern in cultured neurons suggests that the Aβ globulomers do not bind to postsynaptic spines, since the electrophysiological findings point to presynaptic P/Q channels being their site of action. This observation would not support the authors’ hypothesis that “all Aβ oligomers target the same synaptic mechanism.” On the contrary, if true, the collective data on various forms of Aβ to date indicate that they can target different synaptic elements.

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