As Holmes and his colleagues have discovered, tumor necrosis factor-α plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease—although that role may be more due to its induction of peroxynitrites than to inflammation (Hikiji et al., 2000). Peroxynitrite damage is widespread in Alzheimer's disease (Smith et al., 1997). Many peroxynitrite scavengers have been found to protect against, ameliorate, and correct cognitive deficits in animal models of the disease. Indeed, employing peroxynitrite scavengers may open the door to the treatment of this disease.
Hikiji H, Shin WS, Koizumi T, Takato T, Susami T, et al. Peroxynitrite production by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta: Implication for suppression of osteoblastic differentiation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 (278):1031-7. Abstract
Smith MA, Richey Harris PL, Sayre LM, Beckman JS, Perry G. Widespread peroxynitrite-mediated damage in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 1997 (17): 2653-7. Abstract
Alkam T, Nitta A, Mozguici H, Itoh A, Nabeshima T. A natural scavenger of peroxynitrites, rosmarinic acid, protects against impairment of memory induced by AB 25-35. Behav Br Res 2007 (180): 139-45. Abstract
Majlessi N, Choopani S, Kamalinejad M, Azizi Z. Amelioration of Amyloid beta-induced cognitive deficits by Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Neurosci and Therap. 2011 (online).
Frydman-Marom A, Levin A, Farfara D, Benromano T, Scherzer-Attali R, et al. Orally administered cinnamon extract reduces beta-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease animal models. PLoS one 2011(6): e16564. Abstract
Chericoni S, Prieto JM, Iacopini P, Cioni P, Morelli I. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative processes. J of Agric Food Chem 2005(53): 4762-5. Abstract
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