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Amyloid-β is likely an intermediate in the development of dementia and neuronal cell death in Alzheimer disease and in some cases of Parkinson disease, whereas peroxynitrites may be the principal culprit. Through oxidation and nitration, peroxynitrites disrupt neurotransmissions and lead to a critical shortage of acetylcholine, which is involved in the retrieval of short-term memories. Polyphenols can be used to scavenge peroxynitrites and to partially reverse both peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation and nitration of proteins. The progression of certain types of dementia may thus not only be stopped, but partially reversed.
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Marshall KA, Reist M, Jenner P, Halliwell B. The neuronal toxicity of sulfite plus peroxyntrite is enhanced by glutathione depletion: implication for Parkinson's disease. Free Radic Biol Med 27(1999):515-20. Abstract
Smith MA, Richey Harris PL, Sayre LM, Beckham JS, Perry G. Widespread peroxynitrite-mediated damage in Alzheimer's disease J of Neurosci 17(1997):2653-7. Abstract
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